Despite its small size, cranial nerves play a large role in human body motion. That is because cranial nerves have the function of collecting and connecting information from the brain to other parts of the body, especially the head and neck.
Cranial nerves consist of 12 pairs with different names and functions. Some nerves are directly involved in special senses, such as the senses of vision, hearing, and taste, while other nerves play a role in controlling muscles in the face or regulating glands.
Understanding the functions of the 12 Kranial Nerves and their Disorders
Each cranial nerve is written with Roman numerals arranged according to their location, from the front of the brain to the back.
Here are the names and functions of the 12 cranial nerves:
I. Olfactory nerves
The olfactory nerve carries odor stimulation for the sense of smell from the nose to the brain.
II. Optic nerve
This second order nerve has a role in sending visual information from the retina to the eye.
III. Oculomotor nerve
Nerves that function provide nerve supply to the muscles around the eyes, including the muscles of the upper eyelid (making the eyelid move), extraocular muscles, and pupillary muscles (making the pupils shrink).
IV. Troklear nerves
The nerve that controls the eye’s superior oblique muscle, which is one of the muscles that moves the eye and is the muscle outside the eyeball (extraocular muscle). A paralyzed troklear nerve can cause the eyeball to rotate upward and outward, resulting in double vision.
V. Trigeminal nerves
The nerve that plays a role in controlling sensation in some areas of the head and face and controlling the jaw muscles used for chewing. Problems with the fifth cranial nerve can cause pain or numbness in the face, jaw tilted toward the side of the affected face, or even difficulty chewing.
VI. Abdominal nerve
The nerve that is responsible for operating the lateral rectus muscle, the muscle that pulls the eye towards the side of the head. If this nerve is disturbed, it can make your eyes squint.
VII. Facial nerve
The nerve that functions controls facial expressions, tongue, and information from the ear. Disturbance of the facial nerve can cause one side of the face to droop, the mouth cannot whistle, the forehead cannot constrict, the mouth tilts to one side of the face, and the eyelids cannot close. This nerve paralysis is called Bell’s palsy.
VIII. Vestibulokoklear nerve
This nerve is responsible for the sense of hearing, balance and body position. This cranial nerve problem can cause tinnitus (buzzing ears), deafness, dizziness, vertigo, and vomiting.
IX. Glossopharyngeal nerve
This nerve is related to the tongue, throat, and one of the salivary glands, the parotid gland. Tasting and swallowing food or drinks can be difficult if these nerves have problems.
X. The vagus nerve
This nerve is responsible for supplying nerve fibers to the pharynx, larynx where there are (vocal cords), trachea, esophagus, lungs, heart, small intestine, and large intestine. The tenth cranial nerve is also responsible for bringing sensory information from the ear, tongue, pharynx and larynx to the brain. The disturbed vagus nerve will affect the voice (becoming hoarse or hoarse), the nose and vocal cords, even making speaking and swallowing difficult.
XI. Accessory nerve
This nerve has a role in controlling the muscles used for head movements. This nerve damage can make the sternocleidomastoid muscles (neck muscles) and trapezius (back muscles) weaken. As a result, the shoulder blades will protrude, if the shoulder is raised or raised because the shoulder blades themselves cannot be lifted.
XII. Hypoglossal nerve
This last cranial nerve affects the muscles in the tongue.
As mentioned above, cranial nerve work can be disrupted. Some of these disorders can be caused by syphilis, diabetes mellitus, tumors, multiple sclerosis, chronic meningitis, sarcoidosis, vasculitis, and lupus.
Cranial nerve structure has a very important role. Without cranial nerves, bodily functions will be disrupted. If you experience symptoms that are likely related to cranial nerves, it is advisable to see a doctor immediately.