Plasma cells are one type of white blood cells that secrete large amounts of antibodies. Symptoms of diseases that attack plasma cells, especially neoplasm, can include feeling very tired, difficult to swallow food, diarrhea, and anemia.
Each plasma cell, capable of releasing thousands of antibody molecules when needed. After being released into the blood and lymph nodes, the antibody molecules produced by plasma cells bind to foreign substances and then destroy them. When health problems are resolved (for example infections), the production of antibody molecules from plasma cells will decrease slowly.
Recognizing the Types of Plasma Cell Diseases
The existence of abnormally changing plasma cell growth, can cause a condition known as plasma cell neoplasms. This happens when the body has too many plasma cells, and this condition can be benign or malignant. Plasma cell neoplasms are more common in middle-aged or elderly men, black, have a history of radiation exposure or other chemicals, and have had a history of neoplasm.
In addition, plasma cells also form M protein, an antibody protein that actually does not help fight infection and is not even needed by the body. Heap of M protein in the bone marrow can also cause interference, which causes blood coagulation and harm the kidneys.
There are several types of neoplasms in plasma cells, including:
Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)
This condition is not classified as cancer, but has a risk of becoming cancerous. MGUS occurs when less than 10 percent of bone marrow is made up of abnormal plasma cells, but not cancer. These abnormal cells form M proteins that actually do not pose a danger. GGU is at risk of causing cancer, such as multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, or lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. In addition, MGUS can cause other serious conditions, such as amyloidosis, which is the buildup of amyloid protein in tissues or organs. Disorders of the nerves, heart and kidneys, can also occur in MGUS.
Plasmasitoma occurs when abnormal growth of plasma cells forms a tumor in a part of the body. Plasmasitomas can be categorized into two types: – Plasmasitomas are isolated in the bone. In this condition, less than 10 percent of bone marrow is made up of plasma cells, but none of them cause symptoms of cancer. Plasmasitoma in bones, can cause pain or fractures.
– Extramedular plasmacytoma occurs when plasma cell tumors are present in soft tissue, such as the throat, and not in the bone or bone marrow. These tumors can compress and cause pain or other disorders in the area of tumor growth. For example, tumors in the throat can make it difficult for sufferers to swallow food.
Multiple myeloma is a type of bone marrow cancer. This disease is usually not a tumor or a lump. Myeloma cells develop and spread in the bone marrow so that they can interfere with the production of healthy blood cells. Generally this condition attacks various parts of the body, such as the skull, ribs, and pelvis. This condition can bring bad effects if it has reached an advanced stage, namely:
– Fatigue and shortness of breath due to anemia.
– Having kidney problems.
– The bones crack easily.
– Bruises, bleeding gums, and abnormal bleeding.
– Recurrent infections continuously.
As mentioned above, a small number of cases of plasma cell neoplasms can trigger a condition called amyloidosis, which is a buildup of abnormal proteins, known as amyloid proteins. This condition can occur in various organs or body tissues.
Symptoms are generally caused by feeling very tired, swollen tongue, purple spots on the skin, diarrhea, or swelling due to the accumulation of fluid in body tissue.
To treat plasma cell disease, the doctor will check your medical and physical history. In addition, the doctor will also perform blood tests and immunoglobubin, biopsy, urine tests, MRI, or CT scan. Handling of plasma cell neoplasms is done by several methods, including drug therapy, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, surgery, or a combination of these methods.
If you feel the symptoms of plasma cell disease as mentioned above, it is advisable to immediately see a doctor, so that as soon as possible given appropriate treatment.